A – Z Glossary on Apparel Manufacturing

Apparel production is an intimidating industry to dive into. One of the toughest obstacles is learning the lingo. To help you out, we’ve compiled the ultimate glossary of apparel design and manufacturing terminology. Use this as your go-to guide so you can focus on more important things like building your brand, connecting with suppliers, or expanding your product line!

Top 15 Terms To Know

You can browse the full list, but be sure to know the 15 key terms listed below!

1. CUT AND SEW

Knit fabrics that are laid out and cut like a woven fabric, instead of being full-fashioned

2. CAD

Computer Aided Design- used as a conceptual tool to design and develop products

3. FLAT SKETCHES

Technical sketch of a product as if it were laying flat- includes stitching & seaming details

4. FULL-FASHIONED

Knit garments that have been shaped on a flat knitting machine

5. GRADING

Proportionately increasing or decreasing the dimensions of parts of a product according to the size ranges intended for production.

6. KNIT

Fabric created by interlocking loops of yarn

7. MARKER

A full-scale diagram, usually on paper, indicating the most fabric conscience placement for all the graded pattern pieces in a garment.  Used in the fabric cutting process for production.

8. MINIMUMS

The minimum quantity that a vendor requires in order to contract their goods or services.

9. PATTERN

A paper or computer model for each piece of a product.  Used as a guide to construct a product.

10. PROTOTYPE

A full size working model of a new product or new version of an existing product used as a basis for later production stages.

11. PURCHASE ORDER (PO)

A legal, binding contract between a buyer and a supplier.

12. SOURCING

Process of obtain goods and/or services from a manufacturer either domestically or globally.

13. TECHNICAL SPEC PACKAGING (TECH PACK)

Includes all the information to communicate to a vendor how to produce a product (size, fabrication, quality standards, etc.)

14. WOVEN

Fabric composed of two yarns running in perpendicular directions woven together

15. FABRIC CONSTRUCTION

The specific base construction of a fabric: (knit, woven, or non-woven), type of structure and size/weight.

CUT AND SEW, CAD, FLAT SKETCHES, FULL-FASHIONED, GRADING, KNIT, MARKER, MINIMUMS, PATTERN, PROTOTYPE, PURCHASE ORDER, PO, SOURCING, TOP WOVEN, FABRIC CONSTRUCTION, ACRYLIC, BAR TACK BINDING, BLIND, HEM CAD CALL OUT, CAP SLEEVE, CARE INSTRUCTIONS, CASING, CB, CF, CIRCULAR KNIT COVERSTITCH CROQUIS CUT AND SEW Dart DENIER, DTM EASE ENZYME WASH FABRIC CONSTRUCTION FABRIC CONTENT FABRIC DYED, FABRIC YIELD, FACING FIT MODEL, FLAT SKETCHES, FLATLOCK FULL-FASHIONED GARMENT-DYED GARMENT-WASHED GRADING, HARD GOOD, HPS INTERFACING INTERLINING ISO STITCHING, JERSEY KNIT, KANGAROO POCKET KNIT LAB DIPS LAP-SEAM LIGNE LINE SHEETS LINING LS MARKER MINIMUMS NECK TAPE NEEDLE SPACING PACKING LIST PATCH, POCKET PATTERN POM PP PRESENTATION BOARD PROTOTYPE PURCHASE ORDER RAGLAN SLEEVE RAW EDGE, RIB KNIT, SALES SAMPLE, SET IN SLEEVE, SIZE RUN, SOFT GOOD, SOURCING SPI SS SWEEP TECHNICAL SPEC PACKAGE, TOP, TOPSTITCHING, TRIM UNDERSTITCHING WB WEARERS LEFT WEARERS RIGHT WOVEN YARN DYED, YOKE

The Complete Glossary on Apparel Manufacturing

ACRYLIC

Generic name for man made fibers

BAR TACK

Group of stitches used to reinforce specific areas on a garment.

BINDING

Edge finishing where a strip of fabric incases an edge

BLIND HEM

A machine or hand stitch where the hem is almost invisible from the face side of the fabric.

CAD

Computer Aided Design- used as a conceptual tool to design and develop products

CALL OUT

Special note about a garment structure, finishing, etc…

CAP SLEEVE

Sleeve that falls midway between shoulder and bicep

CARE INSTRUCTIONS

A series of directions describing which care practices should used to care for a product.

CASING

enclosed tunnel-usually meant for a drawstring

CB

Center Back

CF

Center Front

CIRCULAR KNIT

Refers to fabrics knit on a circular knitting machine.. A circular knitting machine may be used to produce seamless garments like hosiery.

COVERSTITCH

Adds stability to seams and finishes raw edges on inside of garment

CROQUIS

Quick sketch of a design on a model

CUT AND SEW

Knit fabrics that are laid out and cut like a woven fabric, instead of being full-fashioned

Dart

The removal of fabric for a garment to create shaping.

DENIER

The weight/strength measurement of filament yarns and fibers

DTM

Dyed To Match

EASE

The amount of extra “room” included in the garment for purposes of comfort, movement or appearance.

ENZYME WASH

A fabric washing process that softens the hand of fabric and wears down the color

FABRIC CONSTRUCTION

The specific base construction of a fabric: (knit, woven, or non-woven), type of structure and size/weight.

FABRIC CONTENT

The percentage breakdown of fabric fiber contents

FABRIC DYED

Fabric is dyed after being woven or knit

FABRIC YIELD

Amount of fabric used to cut one product, or trim.

FACING

Extra layer of material sewn to the inside of a garment for strength and/or edge finishing

FIT MODEL

An individual whose general body measurements reflect the sample size of product.

FLAT SKETCHES

Technical sketch of a product as if it were laying flat- includes stitching & seaming details

FLATLOCK

seaming method to get the flattest seam- panels are run though a flatlock machine and stitched together edge to edge

FULL-FASHIONED

Knit garments that have been shaped on a flat knitting machine

GARMENT-DYED

Garment is Dyed after being constructed

GARMENT-WASHED

Garment is washed after being constructed to cut down on shrinkage & add softness

GRADING

Proportionately increasing or decreasing the dimensions of parts of a product according to the size ranges intended for production.

HARD GOOD

Goods that are not consumed or destroyed in use and can be used for a period of time

HPS

High Point Shoulder-imaginary horizontal line across the highest shoulder point of a garment- used to find drop and placement

INTERFACING

Material used to stiffen/strengthen a fabric.  Usually sandwiched between two fabrics.

INTERLINING

An extra fabric enclosed between a main fabric and lining providing additional weight or warmth.

ISO STITCHING

International standard of stitches categorized by numbers

JERSEY KNIT

Single knit fabric, with a distinct smooth side and rough side

KANGAROO POCKET

Single front patch pocket with openings at both sides

KNIT

Fabric created by interlocking loops of yarn

LAB DIPS

Color swatches sent to a customer by the dyer or printer for approval

LAP-SEAM

Seaming with one panel overlapping on top of the other panel

LIGNE

Category of numbers which represents the diameter/size of a button

LINE SHEETS

1 sheet of paper with designs images and information.  Used a quick reference of product for buyers.

LINING

A protective layer of fabric in the inside of a garment

LS

Long Sleeve

MARKER

A full-scale diagram, usually on paper, indicating the most fabric conscience placement for all the graded pattern pieces in a garment.  Used in the fabric cutting process for production.

MINIMUMS

The minimum quantity that a vendor requires in order to contract their goods or services.

NECK TAPE

Protective band of tape or fabric sewn at the inside of a neck seam for a more comfortable feel to the garment

NEEDLE SPACING

distance between needles on the same stitch

PACKING LIST

A list prepared by the shipper that lists the quantity and kinds of items being shipped

PATCH POCKET

Pocket added to a garment

PATTERN

A paper or computer model for each piece of a product.  Used as a guide to construct a product.

POM

Point of Measure-used to communicate the exact place to measure a garment

PP

Pre-Production-sample(s) before the production process begins

PRESENTATION BOARD

A representation of a product line together.  Can be in color ways or with trim/fabric swatches included.

PROTOTYPE

A full size working model of a new product or new version of an existing product used as a basis for later production stages.

PURCHASE ORDER

A legal, binding contract between a buyer and a supplier.

RAGLAN SLEEVE

Sleeve that runs from collar to hem for ease of movement

RAW EDGE

Cut edge without any finishing

RIB KNIT

Stretchy knit fabric that appears the same on both sides.  More stetch than a jersey knit

SALES SAMPLE

An exact replica of what will be purchased and shipped to retailers.

SET IN SLEEVE

Sleeve that runs from the shoulder to hem

SIZE RUN

Pre-production samples that are used to check the accuracy of all sizes to be produced in an order

SOFT GOOD

Textile and Clothing Products

SOURCING

Process of obtain goods and/or services from a manufacturer either domestically or globally.

SPI

Stitches Per Inch-declares the length of stitches by how many stitches are in an inch

SS

Short Sleeve

SWEEP

The bottom edge of garment around the whole body

TOP

Top of Production- The first units completed off the sewing/production line that are used for quality check.

TOPSTITCHING

Stitching that shows on the face side of fabric either for structural or aesthetic reasons.

TRIM

Material used for decoration or extra function of a product

UNDERSTITCHING

Stitching that appears on the underside of a garment that causes the top fabric to roll slightly over and hide the seam edge.

WB

Waistband

WEARERS LEFT

The left side of a garment from the wearers point of view

WEARERS RIGHT

The right side of a garment from the wearers point of view

WOVEN

Fabric composed of two yarns running in perpendicular directions woven together

YARN DYED

Threads or yarns are dyed before woven or knit (ex. Plaid, check, stripe)

YOKE

Fitted part of a garment- usually at the top of a garment (shoulder/hip)

Take Your Learning to the Next Level!

Maker’s Row Academy offers free email courses to prepare you for pre-production and production processes. Pre-register for our Quality Control 101, and register for our Production 101,Sourcing 101, Make Your First Jewelry Sample, and Make Your First Apparel Sample courses. Our Academy distributes these educational guides for free! Over the duration of each course, expect a new lesson in your inbox each day.

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